ST 2008 Beginnings 1402 Transport: 1478 Accommodation: Mary
I 1555 History
/ Politics: . Visitors
(Refugees): 1556 Knox
preaches at the "Temple de l'auditoire" in
I 1560 Geneva
(transl. William Whittingham, Anthony
Gilby and Thomas Sampson) 1563 Visitors: 1592 Visitors: 1593 Visitors: 1603 Visitors: James
I 1604 Visitors: 1608 Visitors: 1611 Travel
Book: 1616 Visitors: Charles
I 1626 Visitors: 1629 Visitors: 1635 History
/ Politics: 1639 Visitors: 1641 Visitors: 1646 Visitors: 1647 Visitors: Commonwealth 1649 History
/ Politics: 1653 Transport
and Communication: Charles
II 1660 Visitors: 1665 Visitors: 1665 Music: 1684 Travel
II 1686 Visitors: 1687 Travel
Book: 1688 Visitors: William
III and Mary II 1690 Visitors: 1691 Transport: 1692 Travel
Book: 1701 Visitors: Anne 1702 History
/ Politics: 1703 History
/ Politics: 1707 Traffic: 1708 Visitors: 1713 History
/ Politics: 1713 Maps: 1714 Travel
I 1715 History
/ Politics: History
/ Politics: 1722 Travel
Book: 1723 Visitors: George
II 1728 1733 History
/ Politics: 1739 . Literature
on Switzerland: 1741 Visitors: . Mountaineering: 1746 History
/ Politics: 1746 Visitors: 1748 Visitors: . Tourism: 1749 Travel
Book: 1754 Visitors: 1755 Visitors: 1756 Literature
on Switzerland: 1757 Literature: 1759 Voltaire buys an estate called Fernay (near
Geneva), where he spends the rest of his
life. Visits to Voltaire become - against
his wish - part of the "Grand
Tour". ("Voltaire at Fernet", D. H. Auden) 1760 Travel
Book: . Sport
/ mountaineering: George
III 1761 Literature
on Switzerland: 1762 Lord
Keith gives Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-78) protection in Neuchâtel.
Du contrat social published. 1763 Literature
on Switzerland: 1764 History
/ Politics: 1764 Visitors: . 1765 Jean-Jacques
Rousseau moves to the Ile St. Pierre
(Petersinsel) in the Lake of
Bienne. . Visitors: 1766 Jean-Jacques
Rousseau accepts an invitation from David
Hume to come and live in
England. 1766 Visitors: 1769 Paintings: 1770 Visitors: . Accommodation: 1771 Paintings: . Visitors: 1773
Visitors: 1775 Visitors: .1776 Visitors: . .1777 Visitors: Travel
1779 Visitors: . Sport
/ Mountaineering: . 1780 Accommodation: 1781 1782 History
/ Politics: . Visitors: 1783 Visitors
/ Residents: . Paintings: 1784 Visitors: 1785 Visitors: 1786 Visitors: . Sport
/ mountaineering: 1787 Visitors: . Sport
/ mountaineering: . Travel
Visitors: . Paintings: 1789 . Travel
Books: . Visitors: . Accommodation:
Department of English, University of Basel
Literature and Culture Studies: Seminar M. Marti
British and American Visitors in Switzerland:
History of Tourism in Switzerland
till 1789 / The Romantics (1789 - 1837) / The Victorians (1837 - 1901) / 20th century
full timeline (one page)
course programme (provisional)
Adam of Usk, passing the Gotthard, writes that he is drawn in an ox-wagon "half dead with cold, and with mine eyes blindfold lest I should see the dangers of the pass" (Wraight, p. 101f)
First guesthouses in Leukerbad
1553 - 1558
Prosecution of Protestants in England.
British Refugees in Switzerland (Marian Exiles, 1555-58):
About 200 refugees in Geneva: John Scorye (later Bishop of Rochester), Miles Coverdale (translator of the first completely printed ed. of the Bible), William Kethe, John Bodley, William Stafford, Anthony Gilby, Christopher Goodman, Sir John Borthwick, David Lindsay, John Davidson (later Principal of Glasgow University). John Knox becomes the first pastor of the British community in Calvin's Geneva; Thomas Lever in Aarau (Wraight, p. 36)
Zurich: Edwin Sandys (later Archbishop of York), Robert Horne (later Bishop of Winchester), John Parkhurst (later Bishop of Salisbury).
Basel: John Bale, James Pilkington (later Bishop of Durham), Richard Turner, Thomas Bentham, John Foxe, Lady Dorothy Stafford, Sir Francis Walsingham, Sir Francis Knollys. (Wraight, 112f)
Sir Edward Unton visits "Zwechary" (Switzerland) with his servant and diarist Richard Smith (Como, Lugano, Bellinzona, Gotthard Pass, Andermatt, Altdorf, Lucerne, Basel)
Richard Smith: "This mountaine is from the fote to the topp 2 leages and very stepe the way narrow stony and dangerous snow lyenge uppon the mountaine both winter and somer / uppon the top of this hil is an osterye / al our way unto this mountaine the hills ar very full off chestnutt tres and very abundant of chestnuts / but this mountaine bereth nothing but snow and stones / we ffound extrem cold uppon this hill / we decended this hill still untill we came to a littel towne called olsera [Andermatt] from there rode an enlyshe myle plaine ground and descended agen / from olsera aboute ii enlyshe myles is a brydge which is called ponte inferno / it standeth in a straite betwene the mountaines the beginninge of the ryver of rehin cometh from mount godard and at this brydge hath such a fale among the huge stones that is merveylous." (de Beer, p. 11f)
Fynes Moryson: Constance, Schaffhausen, Eglisau, Zurich, Basle.
In the 16th century, baths were much more popular than mountains. Moryson remarks on guests in Baden: "many have no disease but that of love, howsoever they faine sickness of body, come hither for remedy, and many times find it."
Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) : Chiavenna, Splügen, Thusis, Coire, Berne, Geneva.
"I took my course through the Grisons to Geneva, leaving a discreet country in my opinion too soon." (de Beer, p. 14)
The composer John Bull (1563-1628), travelling in France and Germany might have heard a patois song "Cé qu'é laîno, le Maître de Bataille", which has similarities to "God Save the Queen"
1603 - 1625
Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639, see 1593): Coire, Thusis, Splügen, Chiavenna
Thomas Coryat (1577-1617) on his way back from Venice: Chiavenna, Splügen, Thusis, Coire, Wesen, Zurich, Baden, Basel.
"The ways are very offensive to foote travellers. For they are pitched with very sharp and rough stones that will very much punish and greate a man's feete." (de Beer, p. 16)
Thomas Coryat. Coryat's Crudities: Hastily gobled up in five Moneths travells in France, Savoy, Italy, Rhetia, commonly called the Grisons country, Helvetia alias Switzerland, some parts of high Germany and the Netherlands; Newly digested in the hungry aire of Odcombe in the County of Somerset, and now dispersed to the nourishment of the travelling Members of this Kingdome.
Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639, see 1593): Basel, Lausanne, Thonon, Chambéry.
"Infection hindered us to pass the nearest way to Chambéry, and forced us to put our horses and selves at hazard over the Leman Lake, and so to traverse Savoy, buy such rocks and precipices as I think Hannibal did hardly exceed it when he made his way (as poets tell us) with fire and vinegar." (de Beer, 17)
Sir Isaac Wake undertakes a mission to Berne and Zurich on behalf of the canton of the Grisons. He then urges London to appoint a permanent British mission to Switzerland to support the Protestant cantons. A Threefold Help to Political Obversations. i, concerning the Thirteen Cantons of the Helviticall League, London, 1655. Wake stresses the strategic importance of Switzerland between Germany and Italy.
Oliver Fleming appointed British diplomatic agent to Switzerland
Henry Duc de Rohan receives orders by Cardinal de Richelieu to march with his army from the Alsace into the Grisons - without offending the cantons he passes. He leeds his army through Basel, Aargau, Baden, Zurich, St. Gallen and Altstätten to Chur. During the campaign ("Bündner Wirren") he stays at Thusis, Spllügen, Chiavenna, Tirano, Maloja, Livigno, Poschiavo, Bormio.
John Milton travels through Switzerland on his return from Italy, via the Simplon Pass, stopping at Brig, Martigny and Geneva, where he stays at the house of Jean Diodati. (= Giovanni Diodati)
Robert Boyle stays at the house of Jean Diodati (= Giovanni Diodati) in Geneva. "There is three wayes from hence into Italy by Sweetserland and ye Grisons, by Turin, and by Marseilles. The first is to peinefull because of ye great quantity of snow that couereth ye mountaines; ye second is to Dangerous because of ye armys that are both in piedmon and upon the state of Milan; the third is ye Longest indeed but ye sweetest..." (de Beer, p. 19)
Boyle then chooses the first: Geneva, Lausanne, Solothurn, Zurich, Coire, Thusis, Splügen, Chiavenna, Bergamo.
The diarist John Evelyn (1620-1702) comes from Domodossola (Simplon, Brig, Sion, Martigny, Bouveret) to Geneva. He comments on the way Swiss people dress: "... little variety of distinction betwixt the gentleman and the common sort, by a law of their country being exceedingly frugal. Add to this their great honesty and fidelity, though exacting enough for what they part with. I saw not one beggar ... I look upon this country to be the safest spot of all Europe, neither envied nor envying; nor are any of them rich or poor; they live in great simplicity and tranquillity; and although of the fourteen cantons, half be Roman Catholic, the rest Reformed, yet they mutually agree, and are confederate with Geneva." (Wraight, 133f)
John Raymond on his way from Domodossola to Geneva: "Having with much paines, yet delight, because of the variety, crouded through some of the Alpes, wee came to dinner at Sampion, at the top of the Mountaine..." (= Simplon Hospiz)
1649 - 1660
Charles I executed, monarchy abolished.
A weekly post service established by the Luganese Diego Maderno: Lucerne - Milano in 4 days.
Some of the "Regicides" (the judges who had condemned Charles I to death) flee to Switzerland: Edmund Ludlow, John Lisle (assasinated in Vevay in 1664), Cawley, Nicholas Love,and Andrew Broughton. They settle down in Geneva, Lausanne and Vevey.
Ludlow: "In the house where I lodged, the mistress being an English woman, I found good beer, which was a great refreshment to me, after the fatigue of my journey." (de Beer, p. 21)
John Ray (1627-1705): Sta Maria, Ofen Pass, Zernez, Ponte, Albula, Bergün, Coire, Walenstadt, Glarus, Einsiedeln, Schwyz, Altdorf, Stans, Luzerne, Zug, Zurich, Aarau, Solothurn, Berne, Fribourg, Lausanne, Geneva
The naturalist writes in his Observations ... Made in a Journey through the Low Countries, Germany, Italy and France::
"All the Switzers in general are very honest people, kind and civil to strangers. One may travel their country securely with a bag of gold in his hand. When we came to our inns they would be troubled if we distrusted them so far as to take our portmanteaus into our lodging chambers and not leave them in the common dining room." (Wraight, p. 141) and on Zurich: "The Zurichers who anciently had the reputation for valour, are now much given to merchandise and to accumulate riches, and so taken off from martial studies and exercises"
Edmund Ludlow (the Regicide) composes the Bernermarsch
J. J. Wagner (1641-95), Index Memorabilium Helvetiae. (The first real Swiss guidebook)
1685 - 1688
Gilbert Burnet visits Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Solothurn and Basel.
"I left Geneva with a Concern that I could not have felt in leaving any Place out of the Isle of Britain."
Gilbert Burnet (later Bishop of Salisbury): Some Letters Containing What Seemed Most Remarkable in Switzerland, Italy, etc.
1689 - 1702
The British Minister to Switzerland, Thomas Coxe and his wife make an "official visit" to Interlaken and Grindelwald.
"The whole towne rang with joy ye whole day and night ... spectators of all ages and sexes crowded at ye windows ... and saluted me so continually and civilly as I pass't, that I could not putt on my hatt from one gate of ye city to ye other."
Beat de Fischer, Bernese patrician, establishes a Swiss transalpine postal service with a direct link between London and Berne, passing along the left bank of the Rhine.
Remarks on the Grand Tour lately performed by a Person of Quality
Joseph Addison (1672-1719) visits Geneva, Lausanne, Fribourg, Berne, Solothurn, Gotthard, Zurich and St. Gallen.
He writes a letter to Willaim Congreve "from the top of the highest mountain in Switzerland where I am now shivering among the Eternal frosts and snows. ... I am here entertained with the prettiest variety of snow-prospects that you can imagine." (de Beer, p. 26)
"It is very wonderful to see such a knot of governments, which are so divided among themselves in matters of religion, maintain so uninterrupted an union and correspondence, that no one of them is for invading the rights of another. ... This I think must be chiefly ascribed to the nature of the people, and the constitution of their governments." (Wraight, 150)
1702 - 1714
England declares war on France. The Duke of Marlborough (John Churchill) starts a campaign on the continent and captures Kaiserworth, Venloo and Liege.
Marlborough captures Bonn, Huy, Limoges and Guelders.
Urner Loch: First road tunnel in the Alps (64 m.).
Gilbert Burnet: Zurich, Grindelwald. (see also 1686 and 1687)
Treaty of Utrecht establishes the terms of peace with Louis XIV.
Johann Jakob Scheuzer publishes "Nova Helvetiae Tabula Geographica", the most complete map of Switzerland of the eighteenth century.
Followed in 1723 by Ouresiphoites Helveticus sive Intinera Alpina per Helvetiae alpinas regiones facta annis MDCCII. MDCCIII. etc. (1702-1711, contains illustrations of dragons that have been seen by travellers in the Alps)
L'Etat de la Suisse, en 1714 - An Account of Switzerland Written in the Year 1714, by Abraham Stanyan, former British Minister in Berne.
Jacobite Rebellion in favour of James Stuart, "the Old Pretender", fails in Scotland.
England at war with Spain.
The Gentleman's Pocket Companion for travelling into Foreign parts, illustrated with maps (London)
Sir Horace Mann goes from Geneva to Grindelwald: "Four years previously, the glacier had advanced so much that the inhabitants were considering a petition to their government for permission to make use of the services of an exorcist to drive the glacier back ... the glacier did in fact recede, though doubtless for other reasons." (de Beer, p. 30)
Anti-British riots in the Valais as Mandel and Aston, two Englishmen, should get the rights to exploit the iron mines in the Valley of Binn. (Wraight, 162)
Albrecht von Haller, Die Alpen
Albrecht von Haller's ode changes the attitudes of many people: The Alps become very popular.
Lady Mary Wortley Montague (Geneva)
Benjamin Stillingfleet (1702-1771), probably in blue stockings - visits Chamonix from Geneva.
William Wyndham: Geneva, Chamonix
Richard Pococke (1704-1765): Basel, Liestal, Waldenburg, Solothurn, Aarberg, Murten, Lausanne, Nyon, Geneva, Chamonix, Thonon, Evian, Aigle, Bex, Vevey, Fribourg, Murten, Neuchâtel, Berne, Lucerne, Walchwil, Zug, Zurich, Winterthur, Schaffhausen, Basel.
William "Boxing" Wyndham recruits a "large brigade of guides" to climb the Montanvert (Chamonix)
The Highlanders are massacred at the Battle of Culloden, Cumberland wins against the Jacobites. Charles Edward, the Young Pretender (Bonnie Prince Charlie), escapes to France.
Philip Stanhope visits Lausanne, Bex, Berne and Einsiedeln on his Grand Tour. HIs father, the Earl of Chesterfield, writes to him: "Bishop Burnet has wrote his travels through Switzerland [see 1687], and Mr. Stanyan, from a long residence there, has written the best account, yet extant, of the thirteen cantons [see 1714]: but those books will be read no more. I presume, after you shall have published your accounts of that country. I hope you will favour me with one of the first copies. To be serious, though I do not desire that you shall immediately turn author and oblige the world with your travels, yet, wherever you go, I would have you as curious and inquisitive as if you did intend to write them." (1747; Wraith, 167f)
James Hutton (1726-1797): Schaffhausen, St. Gallen, Zurich, Aarau, Berne, Neuchâtel, Geneva.
Thomas Hollis (1720-74): Geneva, Berne, Zurich.
Because of the excavations Herculaneum (1738) and Pompeji (1748) become major destinations of the Grand Tour.
The first major guidebook to the Grand Tour: Nugent, Thomas. The grand Tour or a journey through the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France (4 vol. London).
Prince Charles Edward Stuart or Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, stays in Basel at the hotel Drei Könige under the name of Mr. Thompson. He is travelling with Miss Walkinshaw and their daughter, the future Duchess of Albany.
Lord Keith (outlawed because of his participation in the Jacobite Rebellion) is made Governor of the principality of Neuchâtel for Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. (Neuchâtel remains Prussian till 1815)
Edward Gibbon (1737-94) makes a tour of Switzerland (Lausanne, Yverdon, Neuchâtel, Solothurn, Baden, Zurich, Einsiedeln, Basel, Aarau, Berne). In Einsiedeln he comments: "I was astonished by the profuse ostentation of riches in the poorest corner of Euope; amidst a savage scene of woods and mountains, a palace appears to have been erected by magic."
(Back in Lausanne, Gibbon falls in love with Suzanne Curchaud, but his father forbids the marriage. Suzanne then married Jacques Necker, and their daughter became the famous Mme de Stael. Gibbon returned to England in 1758.)
Voltaire comes to Geneva: L'auteur arrivant dans sa terre, près du lac de Genève. (epitre 85, 1755)
Oliver Goldsmith (1728-74) makes Voltaire's acquaintance in Lausanne. Poem "The Traveller".
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Nouvelle Héloise.
George Keate (1729-1797) Verses, occasioned by visiting in 1756, a small Chapel on the Lake of Lucern, in the canton of Uri, erected to the memory of the famous William Tell.
Edmund Burke: Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
Burke's idea of the "Sublime" changes people's view of the Alps.
The term "Grand Tour" appears in Voyage of Italy, by Richard Lassels (the word "tourist" only around 1800)
Horace-Benedict de Saussure visits Chamonix, and offers a reward to the man who should first succeed in reaching the summit of Mont Blanc.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Julie, ou la Novelle Héloise: The lovers, Julie and Saint-Preux, live at the foot of the Alps. The book fosters a cult of the environs of Lake Leman and Switzerland becomes the goal of literary pilgrimages.
Wieland's translation of Shakespeare published by Orell Gesner & Co, Zurich. Sponsored by Johann Jakob Bodmer.
George Keate (1729-1797) The Alps
After the Peace of Paris has ended the Seven Years' War, the way is open for British tourists to travel to the continent.
British tourists have increased: a Swiss observer estimates that of twenty guests in a Swiss inn, fourteen are British.
Charles Stanhope (1763-1816) and Daniel Malthus (the father of (the father of Thomas Robert Malthus) visit Voltaire in Geneva.
On his Grand Tour, James Boswell goes from Basel to Solothurn, stays there at the Hotel de La Couronne, visits Lord Keith in Neuchâtel, makes six calls on Rousseau at Motiers and spends some time with Voltaire at Ferney.
Samuel Sharp: "I must confess to you that I have yet seen nothing which has afforded me so much pleasure as that extraordinary genious Mons. Voltaire. My principal motive for passing the Alps, by way of Geneva, was a visit to that Gentleman." (Letters from Italy, 1766)
John Wilkes (1725-97): "The Appenines are not near so high or so horrible as the Alps. On the Alps you see very few tolerable spots; and only firs, but very majestic." (de Beer, p. 46)
Adam Smith stays in Geneva, accompanying the young Duke of Buccleuch as a travelling tutor. He meets Voltaire at Ferney, works in Geneva on his Wealth of Nations.
George Keate: An Epistle to Monsieur de Voltaire
The Irish painter Edmund Garvey exhibits a watercolour of a Waterfall in the Alps at the Royal Academy, one of the first Alpine paintings to be shown in Britain.
The English painter William Pars (1742-82) is engaged by the 2nd Lord Palermston to accompany him on a 6 weeks' tour of Switzerland, to make "drawings of the most remarkable views and antiquities". Horace-Benedict de Saussure joins them for part of the tour. (Geneva, Chamonix, Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, Meiringen, Grimsel, Furka, Andermatt)
Frederick Hervey (1730-1803): Geneva, Chur (Coire), Bondo.
Frederick Hervey, Bishop of Derry and 4th Earl of Bristol, likes to travel, and his reputation for good living and for staying at the best hotels explains the number of hotels named "Bristol" after him.
Mme Coutterand opens the first inn at Chamonix.
William Pars (see 1770) shows his Swiss drawings in London.
Norton Nicholls, encouraged by Thomas Gray, crosses Switzerland on his way from Paris to Milan. He visits Salomon Gessner in Zurich, "the poet, author of the death of Abel of which you have read the translation, he is a man of genius and amiable; - I pass everywhere like current coin as the friend of poor Mr. Gray..." (Black, p. 35)
The 8th Duke of Hamilton on the Grand Tour, accompanied by John Moore, visits Geneva, Chamonix, Martigny, Evian, Lausanne, Berne and Basel.
Lord Charles Greville is the first person to cross the Gotthard pass in a wheeled carriage.
The botanist and garden architect Thomas Blaikie (1851-1838) is sent by Dr Fothergill (Upton near Stratford.) and Dr Pitcairn, to search for rare alpine plants in Switzerland. He passes through: Geneva, Thonon, Evian, Morgins, Monthey, Bex, Sion, Leuk, Gemmi, Kandersteg, Interlaken, Grindelwald, Thun, Berne, Biel, St. Imier, Vallorbe, Lac de Joux, Chamonix, Lausanne, Vevey, Aigle.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (together with Counts Friedrich Leopold and Christian Stolberg): Schaffhausen, Zurich, Einsiedeln, Schwyz, Rigi, Altdorf, Andermatt, Gotthard, Altdorf, Brunnen, Zug, Zurich, Basel.
William Coxe (1747-1828) visits Schaffhausen, St. Gallen, Appenzell, Sargans, Walenstadt, Glarus, Einsiedeln, Rapperswil, Zurich, Zug, Lucerne, Altdorf, Andermatt, Furka, Münster, Grimsel, Meiringen, Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Interlaken, Kandersteg, Gemmi, Leuk, Sion, Martigny, Chamonix, Geneva, Lausanne, Yverdon, Neuchâtel, Le Locle, Murten, Fribourg, Berne, Bienne, Solothurn, Basel.
Coxe makes his first visit to Switzerland, visiting Lavater and Salomon Gessner. (see also 1779, 1785, 1786 and 1802)
The painter John Robert Cozens (1717-86) is accompanying Richard Payne Knight on his tour: Geneva, Chamonix, Martigny, Berne, Thun, Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, Meiringen, Engelberg, Surenen, Altdorf, Klausen, Glarus, Coire, Thusis, Splügen, Chiavenna.
William Beckford (1759-1844): "Were I not to go to Voltaire's sometimes and to the mountains very often I should die."
Jakob Samuel Wyttensbach publishes a guide-book to the glaciers and peaks of the Bernese Oberland.
William Coxe (1747-1828) comes from Chiavenna to St Moritz and finds a health spa: "I am lodged in one of the boarding-houses, which abound in this place, for the Accommodation of persons who drink the waters." (de Beer, p. 62) He moves on to Zurich via Zuoz, Schuols, Nauders, Sta. Maria, Umbrail, Chiavenna, Splügen, Thusis, Chur (Coire), Lenzerheide, Davos, Klosters, Landquart, Disentis, Oberalp, Andermatt, Altdorf, Brunnen, Schwyz, Gersau, Stans, Lucerne.
Thomas Martyn collects material for his guide book to Switzerland (see 1787). He starts a round trip from Geneva, visiting Lausanne, Vevey, Aigle, Berne, Solothurn, Basel, Schaffhausen, Konstanz, Zurich, Lucerne, Biel, Neuchâtel, Thun, Interlaken, Brienz, Meiringen, Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Interlaken, Fribourg, Chamonix
Frederick Hervey (1730-1803) comes from Aosta (Grand St. Bernard, Martigny) to Berne.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Duke Karl August von Weimar: Basel, Moutier, Biel, Bern, Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, Meiringen, Bern, Lausanne, Chamonix, Martigny, Sion, Leukerbad, Brig, Furka, Altdorf, Lucerne, Zurich, Schaffhausen.
Mr. Blair, an Englishman living in Geneva, erects a small wooden hut on the Montenvers. Blair's Cabin lasts till 1812.
Lauterbrunnen: A new rectory is built to take up guests.
Revolution in Geneva.
The Duke of Gloucester, the King's brother, has an argument with an innkeeper at Stäfa.
Edward Gibbon settles in Lausanne (till 1793) to work till 1787 on the completion of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Sir George Beaumont (1753-1827), watercolourist, comes to paint in Switzerland.
Sir Thomas Constable (1762-1823) travels on foot through Switzerland, pursuing botanical studies.
William Beckford setttles in La Tour-de-Peilz (near Vevey) to work on his novel Vathek.
William Coxe (1747-1828) makes another complete tour (after 1776 and 79): Schaffhausen, Zurich, Basel, Moutier, Biel, Solothurn, Berne, Langnau, Lucerne, Stans, Engelberg, Altdorf, Andermatt, Furka, Grimsel, Meiringen, Lauterbrunnen, Interlaken, Kandersteg, Gemmi, Leuk, Sion, Martigny, Chamonix, Martigny, Bex, Vevey, Lausanne, Geneva, Neuchâtel, Murten, Fribourg, Biel, Porrentruy, Basel.
The poet Thomas Sedgwick Whalley (1746&endash;1828), visiting Konstanz, Frauenfeld, Zurich, Lucerne, Einsiedeln, Schaffhausen, Zurich, Berne, Solothurn, Balsthal and Basel complains about Coxe's guide book: "I do not agree with Mr. Coxe. The situation of Lucerne appears less beautiful to me, than that of Zurich. ... As I entered Lucerne by land, and with calm ideas, its position towards the lake, though picturesque, fell far short of my expectations" (de Beer, p. 77f)
Horace-Benedict de Saussure: ascends Mont Blanc (second after the locals Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard).
40-50 Englishmen are imprisoned in Geneva because they tried to get out of the city after the gates were shut. They are banished for life from the Republic.
Colonel Mark Beaufoy ascends Mont Blanc soon after Horace-Benedict de Saussure.
Thomas Martyn. Sketch of a Tour through Swisserland. the earliest English guide-book to Switzerland.
Charles James Fox (1749-1806) visits Biel, Berne and Lausanne.
William Windham (1750-1810),: Schaffhausen, Basel, Solothurn, Biel, Berne, Thun, Interlaken, Lausanne.
Windham meets Fox in Berne.
George Augustus Wallis (1761-1847), the English landscape painter, tours Switzerland.
Coxe, William. Travels in Switzerland. (after visits in 1776, 1779, 1785 and 1786)
Heinrich Heidegger, Zürich: Handbuch für Wanderer durch die Schweiz
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, completes his education for three years in Geneva. Visits Sir Philip de Loutherbourg in Biel (Bienne), joins the Masonic Lodge of Geneva.
The first guesthouse at Kandersteg: Gasthof "zum Ritter"
till 1789 / The Romantics (1789 - 1837) / The Victorians (1837 - 1901) / 20th century
full timeline (one page)
Black, Jeremy. The British Abroad. The Grand Tour in the Eighteenth Century. New York 1992
de Beer, G. R. Travellers in Switzerland. London 1949
Bernard, Paul B. Rush to the Alps. New York 1978.
Jud, Markus. Geschichte der Schweiz, Verkehr [http://www.geschichte-schweiz.ch/verkehr.html]
Wraight, John. The Swiss and the British. Salisbury: Russell:1987
course programme (provisional)
Knox preaches at the "Temple de l'auditoire" in Geneva.
Geneva Bible (transl. William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby and Thomas Sampson)
III and Mary II
Voltaire buys an estate called Fernay (near Geneva), where he spends the rest of his life. Visits to Voltaire become - against his wish - part of the "Grand Tour". ("Voltaire at Fernet", D. H. Auden)
Keith gives Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-78) protection in Neuchâtel.
Du contrat social published.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau moves to the Ile St. Pierre (Petersinsel) in the Lake of Bienne.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau accepts an invitation from David Hume to come and live in England.